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Hyperglycemia Symptoms: The Telltale Signs and What to Do

Recognize The Signs of Hyperglycemia and Take Action.

 

Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, is an excess of glucose in the bloodstream. Even when you do your best to manage your blood glucose, you will experience highs. These highs can be dangerous if you don’t act quickly. The reference table below can help you quickly recognize the signs of hyperglycemia (when your fasting blood glucose is at or above 11 mmol/L)1 and act. You may want to print it off and keep it handy.

Recognize and treat symptoms of hyperglycemia

Signs to look out for What to do
  • Increased thirst
  • Urinate more often than usual, especially during the night
  • More tired than usual

 

Try to figure out why it’s high

Did you have a larger-than-usual meal or snack?

Did you calculate your carbohydrate intake correctly?

Did you not take enough insulin?

Were you less physically active than usual?

Are you feeling unwell or are you sick?

 

Take action to lower your blood glucose to your target levels

Note: When initially discussing your diabetes care plan, ask your doctor how you should adjust your insulin when your blood glucose is high.

Engage in mild physical activity and drink non-sugary drinks to prevent dehydration.

Re-test your blood glucose to see if it has decreased.

If it remains high for a few days, consult your healthcare team. Changes may be needed to your diabetes management plan.

 

If your blood glucose is very high (>14.0 mmol/L, but it can be lower than this number so watch for the symptoms below), check for ketones.2

Ketoacidosis develops when your body doesn’t produce enough insulin, so it breaks down fats into ketones. Ketone levels can be measured with a simple urine test using ketone strips (similar to blood glucose test strips) purchased from the pharmacy.

Ketoacidosis can be very serious and lead to a diabetic coma. Ketoacidosis usually develops slowly. But when vomiting occurs, this life-threatening condition can develop in a few hours. Get medical help right away if you notice these symptoms3:

Early on:

Thirst or a very dry mouth

Frequent urination

High blood glucose levels

High levels of ketones in the urine

Later:

Constantly feeling tired

Dry or flushed skin

Nausea, vomiting, or stomach pain

Difficulty breathing

Fruity-smelling breath

A hard time paying attention or feeling confused

Because you may need help from those around you, it may be helpful to:

  • Wear a MedicAlert® bracelet to notify people of your condition
  • Alert those close to you (friends, family, coaches) on symptoms to watch out for and what to do
  • Be sure to share this list and information with your friends and family so they are informed and can help
  • Keep a supply of ketone test strips at home
 

References:

1 Clayton D, Woo, V, Yale JF, et al. Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada: hypoglycemia. Can J Diabetes 2013;37(suppl 1): S69-S71 Last accessed: June 15th, 2017

2 Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines. Hyperglycemic Emergencies in Adults. Can J Diabetes 37(2013):S72-S76. Last accessed: June 15th, 2017

3 American Diabetes Association. DKA (Ketoacidosis & Ketones). Available at:
http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/complications/ketoacidosis-dka.html. Accessed May 25th, 2017.

NACO/LFS/0517/0372(1)